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This article was written on 28 Jul 2010, and is filled under out of time.

Geschichten erzählen!

Hallo liebe Mitmenschen!

Ich weiß nicht, an wen ich mich sonst wenden soll. Überall sind Informationen: Wir reden von Ihnen, wir tauschen sie aus, wir wenden sie an und ergötzen uns mitunter auch an ihrer schieren Masse. Wieviel es doch zu wissen gibt!

Wenn ich über der Wolkendecke fliege und in den Gestalten der Wolkentürme Muster erkenne; als hätte ich sie schon irgendwann einmal gesehen. Ein behagliches Gefühl macht sich in der Magengegend breit. Und doch bleiben sie unverkennbar in diesem einen Moment, werden zwar angereichert durch die Erinnerung, strahlen aber auch für sich einen eigenen, unvergleichlichen Glanz aus.

Ich kann euch nunmehr nur davon erzählen.

Sei es jetzt gerade in diesem Blog oder in einer lauen Sommernacht bei einem Glas Wein auf dem Balkon. Das Gefühl, an das ich mich erinnere, bleibt in etwa das gleiche. Jede Situation, in der sich daraus eine Geschichte formt, drückt dieser noch zusätzlich ihren eigenen Stempel auf. Die Geschichte verändert sich, erwacht zu Leben und findet immer wieder von Neuem ihren Ort und Anlass.

Ähnlich verhält es sich wohl auch mit den großen Erzählungen unserer Zeit, man denke dabei nur an „Ein Gespenst geht um in Europa…“. Auch diese Geschichte wird wieder und wieder erzählt werden, stets in anderem Licht und aus anderer Perspektive.

Wie können wir diese Veränderung fassen?

Wir schlagen in Geschichtsbüchern nach, tauschen uns einmal mehr mit anderen über unsere Eindrücke aus, revidieren, korrigieren und fügen hinzu, lassen Illusionen ziehen und neue entstehen. Ganz sicher sind wir uns schließlich nie, nur hoffen dürfen wir, dass wir von anderen verstanden werden.
Und ebenso verlassen wir uns auf Geschichten die sich auf andere beziehen, um einen größeren Überblick zu erhalten; erkennen Zusammenhänge, Bewegungen und wieder – Widersprüche.

Wer hat nun recht? Das liegt wohl nur bei dir. Und den anderen, die deine Sicht beeinflussen. Und den Büchern, die du zu Rate ziehst. Und wieder anderen, an denen du deine Fortschritte stabilisieren willst – wähnst dich wieder auf sicheren Plateaus. Benutzt auch nicht nur das geschriebene Wort zur Stabilisierung, schaust Filme, hörst Nachrichten, beliest dich im Internet und wieder – die Medien vermitteln dir Geschichten, denen du am Ende glauben sollt.
Doch ganz sicher bist du dir schließlich nicht.

Was bleibt dir übrig?

Lass dich von mir an die Hand nehmen, es geht auf eine Reise.

Wir sprechen von Erzählungen, den Erfahrungen der Menschheit, weitergetragen von Generation zu Generation. Behütet und geschützt durch strikte Regeln und eiserne Traditionen, verändert unmerklich im Fluss vom Einen zum Anderen.
Nach welchen Ordnungen formen wir unsere Geschichten? Wie entscheiden wir, zu welcher Geschichte wir gehören; besser welcher wir gehorchen? Welche wir weitererzählen, fortleben lassen und welche nicht.

Welches Wissen ist wahr und verständlich, welches strapaziert den geübten Geist bis an seine Grenze und lässt ihn zaudern nachzuvollziehen? Wann lässt unsere Stimme dem Wieder- und damit Weitergegebenen den Ton von unmissverständlicher Sicherheit tragen? Und mit welcher Menschengruppe teilen wir welche ähnlichen Geschichten?

Im konkreten Moment mit Anderen Produzieren wir die Fortsetzung (der Vergangenheit), lassen (sie) fortwirken und gestatten einen Einfluss auf das Hier und Jetzt. Doch nicht nur wir formen den Moment. Nicht doch auch die Erzähler der Vorzeit, im Andenken ihrer Geschichten die wir teilen? Auf die wir uns berufen können. Damit sie uns Festigkeit und Standhaftigkeit geben. Und machen sie uns damit zu eigen.

Körperlichkeit und Selbst-Bewusstsein

Unser Körper vergisst nicht. Vielleicht aber wirken Erfahrungen mitunter prägender und nachhaltiger, als wir es zu glauben bereit sind. Und finden uns beim instinktiven Kratzen am Rücken auf einmal in einen Moment zurückversetzt, den es doch schon eigentlich nicht mehr gegeben hatte. Aber der Körper vergisst nicht. Vergräbt sich eine Erinnerung, versteckt in den hintersten Winkeln, vor alltäglicher Beäugung verborgen, können schon ein paar Jahre ins Land gehen bis wir ihr wieder einmal begegnen. Und damit uns, namentlich unserer Geschichte, staunend gegenüberstehen.

Bewegen wir uns aber mit wachem Auge in uns selbst, beobachten Veränderungen und verfolgen fliehende Eindrücke, halten sie fest und den Atem an, kann es manchmal sein, dass wir ihnen auf die Schliche kommen. Wie ein Detektiv entschlüsseln wir unsere eigensten Geheimnisse und geben ihnen Bedeutung, ordnen sie ein um vor neuen paradoxen Wänden zu landen. Und doch – auch da – eine Klinke, im unendlichen Raum, die eine Tür öffnet weiterzugehen. Aber nur wer sie sucht wird auch fündig.

Irrwege und Plateaus

Ist es nicht oft ein mentaler Irrweg den wir ursprünglich guten Gewissens verinnerlichten, der sich als Problem herausstellt? Eine vorgegebene Spur, der wir, in vermeintlicher Ermangelung von Alternativen, folgten, die in eine Sackgasse führt. Sind wir nicht auch ohne Strategie zufrieden, innehalten zu können? Es gibt so viel zu Entdecken, bei dem wir Ruhe finden, wenn sie auch keine statische, bleibende sein kann. (Das wäre der Tod.)

Erkenntnisse die wie seltene Plateaus der Ruhe in den Wogen der Zeit verborgen sind, nur um wenig später wieder vom stürmenden Meer der Ereignisse in Geschichte überzugehen. Dorthin zurückzugehen, die guten Erinnerungen in ihrer Zerbrechlichkeit walten und halten zu lassen, kann ein Geschick sein, welches sich nur beschwerlich lernt. Doch Disziplin zahlt sich in diesem Fall wohl aus!

Im Moment der Erinnerung verlängern wir den Moment, halten die Zeit an und verknoten sie neu, verlängern die Existenz durch (erneutes) Wirken lassen des schon Verlorenen. Jeder steht in seiner Verantwortung, sich und seinen Mitmenschen die wahrhaftigen Geschichten zu erzählen; sich nicht in Nebensträngen zu verheddern und guten Mutes auf dem eigentlichen Weg fortzufahren um diesen und keinen anderen würdevoll zu beschreiten.

Vogelschwärme & Wolkendecken

Die Vorbilder der Anderen dienen als Leitschnur, den ersten Schritt musst du aber selbst tun! Mehr als anleiten können sie dich nicht, denn es wird dich keiner zwingen außer dir selbst. Und wenn du auch das nicht mehr nötig hast, kannst du freie Luft atmen und dem Vogelschwarm als Ganzes hinterherschauen, seine fragile Form im Flug der einzelnen Vögel verfolgend und jedem einzelnen seinen Platz im schon wieder in den Baumkronen verschwundenen Gebilde anerkennen.

Im Anschluss findet sich ein textuelles Copy&Paste-Brainstorming, das zusammen mit einem Schmierzettel (persönliche Narrative … Fähigkeit Erzählkunst … des Alltags … META … Konstruktion von Gegennarrativen?) die Grundlage für diesen Text bereitete.

Wichtige Passagen sind zur einfacheren Lesbarkeit hervorgehoben.



Narrative.


Erzaehlstrukturen und Medialitaet bzw.
Intermedialitaet in Geschichte und Gegenwart; narrative und hypertextuelle
Strategien digitaler Gestaltung; ‚Erzaehlungen‘ der Wissenschaften und ihrer
Praesentationstechniken; Medien der narrativen Konstruktion von Identitaet;
muendliche, textuelle und visuelle Erzaehlungen in der Alltagskultur


different relationships among narrators, narratees and characters and offers a new understanding of the rhetorical dynamics of narrative discourse


Sowohl in ihrer schriftlichen als auch in ihrer mündlichen Form kommt der Kulturtechnik des Erzählens nicht nur für die individuelle und kollektive Identitätsstiftung eine entscheidende Bedeutung zu, sondern auch für die Erschließung dessen, was als Wirklichkeit angesehen wird. Faktuales und fiktionales Erzählen fungieren dabei nicht nur als Kommunikationsinstrumente zur Vermittlung individueller und kollektiver Ereignisse, Erfahrungen und Erinnerungen. Sie sind zugleich als strukturgebendes Ordnungsmuster einer Kulturgemeinschaft zu denken, da Kulturen als „Erzählgemeinschaften“ (nach Wolfgang Müller-Funk) konzipiert werden können. Erzählen vermag in diesem Kontext kulturschaffend und -stabilisierend, jedoch auch kritisch hinterfragend und destabilisierend zu wirken. Die Konferenz „Narrative Networks“ wendet sich diesen Phänomenen zu, um interdisziplinär die Leistung von Narration als Kulturtechnik zu diskutieren und neuartige Konzeptionen von Kultur als dynamisches Netzwerk von Narrationen zu erarbeiten.

http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Narrative_Psychologie
der Versuch des Erzählers, aus der Perspektive des hier und jetzt eine (für den Zuhörer und sich selbst) kohärente Geschichte über ein oder mehrere Ereignisse in der Vergangenheit, unter Berücksichtigung der aktuellen Zustände in der Gegenwart und in Antizipation der Zukunft zu entwerfen

http://web.fu-berlin.de/postmoderne-psych/index.htm

Konstruktivismus – und dann?

kritische Theorie & Metanarrative – Geschichten über Geschichten

(Anm. d. A.: An diesem Punkt sei eingeworfen, dass es ans uns liegt, Gegennarrative zu den dominanten, hegemonialen Narrativen der ‚globalisierten Kultur‘ zu entwerfen und – vor allen Dingen – zu leben. Die Konstruiertheit unserer sprachlichen, beinahe logisch-rationalen Welt dient uns hierbei als Werkzeug.)

In these accounts, the embodied, collaborative, dialogic, and improvisational aspects of qualitative research are clarified

There are several ways to tell a story. However, no matter what genre the story is told in, there always needs to be a link to make sure that everything stays together. This is done through the use of a narrative. Understanding what a narrative is and how it is used in literature can help in defining how characters speak, as well as what drives a story forward.

History
The concept of the narrative can be traced back into all cultures from ancient times. This begins with stories and myths that were told orally or through a piece of paper. When these were told, they would use a narrator that would describe the events and ideas to everyone else.
Along with this concept of narration, was the voice of the story tellers that grew into a specific set of attributes. In the Latin, the term means to recount. It is also known that this word is directly linked to knowing. This means that the major concept of the narration is to recount what is known to others.
Types
Narration, unlike other parts of literature, is not linked to a specific genre, time period or technique. Instead, it includes all forms of literature. When there is narration, a story is simply being recalled or told by others.
The differences in narration depends on the type of voice that is used to recall a story. Generally, narration will be told by a narrator. However, this narrator can move across genres. For example, if the work is non-fiction, than the narration will speak in a voice that simply recalls events. If the narration is in fiction, such as a novel, the narration may take on a different type of voice to recall the events throughout the story. This is known as point of view, and is divided by the person that is telling the story. With this, the narration will tell the story through a specific point of view, which includes information that the narrator reveals at certain times, as well as actions that the narrator supplies to set up a dilemma and to solve it, or to pass along information.
Significance
With whatever type of view point is being told, and in whatever literature is being used, the narration is the one part of literature that drives any story forward. The voice that is used to tell facts or fiction also allows the author to drive home the main point of the piece of literature that is being worked on.
If the narration in a story or in a factual piece of work does not have a strong voice, meaning that it can not relate to the person reading the story, or that it misses main points, than it is the narration that will cause the book or literary piece to not be read. Because of this, the narration remains one of the most important pieces of literature when providing readers with seeing a specific point of view, understanding a story or getting a major concept across.
Theories/Speculation
With the range of genres, and literary works are also several types of theories linked to how the narrative can be used. This includes basic ways that authors can use the voice of the narrator to conceive a message in any type of literature. Following are some of the theories that literary critics have added into the concept of narration.
– The minimal narrative. This includes a narrative that provides basic information, but leaves out the details. The reader is then left to interpret what the author is trying to say, while coming up with their own conclusions of what the literature is referring to or is about.
– Fully developed, natural narrative. In this type of narrative, there are very specific cues that the narrator takes to get through a story. This includes showing a concept, an action, evaluating what happens and resolving this. In this way, the narrator is telling a story through creating a scenario and resolving it through their use of words.
– Levels of narration. This refers to how involved a narrator can get. This is divided by the action, mediation and communication that the narrator adds into any story, and how this relates from the author and to the reader.
– Matrix narrative. In this type of narrative, one story links to another, which links to another. This continues on endless points, with each narration connecting at some ‚degree‘ from one to another. This is a more abstract link to telling a story, and is sometimes referred to as hypno-narratives.
Expert Insight
Whether you are writing or reading, the most important part to remember with a narrative is related to who your audience is. This allows you to relate to the individuals that you need to on the correct level. This is also, often times referred to as the voice of the narrator.
If your narrator needs to be active in revealing the story, such as through details and action, than this is the type of narration to consider. If your narrator is simply supplying information, than a passive voice or tone may work better to convey the point. From this, you can move into narrations that include forms and theories to make your literature even better.

Read more: What is a Narrative? | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/about_4571978_what-narrative.html#ixzz0udwqzdLK

When historian Charles Weiner found pages of Nobel Prize-winning physicist Richard Feynman’s notes, he saw it as a „record“ of Feynman’s work. Feynman himself, however, insisted that the notes were not a record but the work itself. In Supersizing the Mind, Andy Clark argues that our thinking doesn’t happen only in our heads but that „certain forms of human cognizing include inextricable tangles of feedback, feed-forward and feed-around loops: loops that promiscuously criss-cross the boundaries of brain, body and world.“ The pen and paper of Feynman’s thought are just such feedback loops, physical machinery that shape the flow of thought and enlarge the boundaries of mind. Drawing upon recent work in psychology, linguistics, neuroscience, artificial intelligence, robotics, human-computer systems, and beyond, Supersizing the Mind offers both a tour of the emerging cognitive landscape and a sustained argument in favor of a conception of mind that is extended rather than „brain-bound.“ The importance of this new perspective is profound. If our minds themselves can include aspects of our social and physical environments, then the kinds of social and physical environments we create can reconfigure our minds and our capacity for thought and reason.

Since its inception some fifty years ago, cognitive science has seen a number of sea changes. Perhaps the best known is the development of connectionist models of cognition as an alternative to classical, symbol-based approaches. A more recent – and increasingly influential – trend is that of dynamical-systems-based, ecologically oriented models of the mind. Researchers suggest that a full understanding of the mind will require systematic study of the dynamics of interaction between mind, body, and world. Some argue that this new orientation calls for a revolutionary new metaphysics of mind, according to which mental states and processes, and even persons, literally extend into the environment. This is a state-of-the-art guide to this new movement in cognitive science. Each chapter tackles either a specific area of empirical research or specific sector of the conceptual foundation underlying this research.

“The Bounds of Cognition is the most thorough-going, forceful, and compelling critique of EMH so far.” ( Erkenntnis, September 2009)
„[This book] is without question a worthy and timely challenge to extended cognition, as well as to areas in related enterprises such as embodied cognition, situated cognition, dynamical systems theory and artificial life…. I recommend the book highly to anyone interested in these issues.“ (Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences, June 2009)

what darwin got wrong:
From Publishers Weekly
The authors of this scattershot treatise believe in evolution, but think that the Darwinian model of adaptationism—that random genetic mutations, filtered by natural selection, produce traits that enhance fitness for a particular biological niche—is fatally flawed. Philosopher Fodor and molecular-biologist-turned-cognitive-scientist Piattelli-Palmarini, at the University of Arizona, launch a three-pronged attack (which drew fire when Fodor presented their ideas in the London Review of Books in 2007). For one thing, according to the authors, natural selection contains a logical fallacy by linking two irreconcilable claims: first, that creatures with adaptive traits are selected, and second, that creatures are selected for their adaptive traits. The authors present an ill-digested assortment of scientific studies suggesting there are forces other than adaptation (some even Lamarckian) that drive changes in genes and organisms . Then they advance a densely technical argument that natural selection can’t coherently distinguish between adaptive traits and irrelevant ones. Their most persuasive, and engaging, criticism is that evolutionary theory is just tautological truisms and historical narratives of how creatures came to be. Overall, the scientific evidence and philosophical analyses the authors proffer are murky and underwhelming. Worse, their highly technical treatment renders their argument virtually incomprehensible to lay readers. (Feb.)
Copyright © Reed Business Information, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
From Booklist
Remaining staunchly atheist all the while, philosopher Fodor and cognitive scientist Piattelli-Palmarini challenge Darwinism more effectively than the entire creationist/intelligent-design movement has. Their short, deliberate, and—for readers consulting (and reconsulting) their dictionaries about the philosophical and scientific vocabulary the authors decline to dumb down—slow-reading tract lays out biological and conceptual arguments against natural selection. Natural selection as the driver of speciation has become decreasingly explanatory as research continues to appreciate the complexity of internal and external processes impinging on development. For one thing, inherent physical limitations of developing organisms nullify blind selection; adapt as they may, pigs will never grow wings. Conceptually, natural selection is faulty because it necessarily implies intentionality (selection is made by something), never mind that how something with adaptive effect is chosen is utterly elusive logically. There is a great deal more to Fodor and Piattelli-Palmarini’s arguments, which ordinary general readers won’t be able to articulate afterward but will gratefully refer others—and themselves—to again and again. Many may find this the hardest, absolutely essential reading they’ve ever done. –Ray Olson

radical embodied cognitive science
While philosophers of mind have been arguing over the status of mental representations in cognitive science, cognitive scientists have been quietly engaged in studying perception, action, and cognition without explaining them in terms of mental representation. In this book, Anthony Chemero describes this nonrepresentational approach (which he terms radical embodied cognitive science), puts it in historical and conceptual context, and applies it to traditional problems in the philosophy of mind.

Radical embodied cognitive science is a direct descendant of the American naturalist psychology of William James and John Dewey, and it follows them in viewing perception and cognition to be understandable only in terms of action in the environment. Chemero argues that cognition should be described in terms of agent-environment dynamics rather than in terms of computation and representation. After outlining this orientation to cognition, Chemero proposes a methodology: dynamical systems theory, which would explain things dynamically and without reference to representation. He also advances a background theory: Gibsonian ecological psychology, „shored up“ and clarified. Chemero then looks at some traditional philosophical problems (reductionism, epistemological skepticism, metaphysical realism, consciousness) through the lens of radical embodied cognitive science and concludes that the comparative ease with which it resolves these problems, combined with its empirical promise, makes this approach to cognitive science a rewarding one.

„Jerry Fodor is my favorite philosopher,“ Chemero writes in his preface, adding, „I think that Jerry Fodor is wrong about nearly everything.“ With this book, Chemero explains nonrepresentational, dynamical, ecological cognitive science as clearly and as rigorously as Jerry Fodor explained computational cognitive science in his classic work The Language of Thought.

Review
„In this challenging, wide-ranging, and truly provocative treatment, Anthony Chemero presents a vision of cognition in which unified animal-environment systems take center stage, and in which complex couplings un-chaperoned by internal representation are the stuff of which minds are made. Recommended reading for all those who fear that the embodied mind is just the disembodied mind with wheels on.“
—Andy Clark, Professor of Logic and Metaphysics, School of Philosophy, Psychology, and Language Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Scotland, UK

„Shall we be present, or shall we re-present? Chemero argues for the former view in a volume that is smart, accessible, and engaging. The book provides an excellent summary of the central conceptual issues in cognitive science, focusing on the role of the ecological approach to perception and action in the development of embodied cognitive science. It is rambunctious, opinionated, and heterodox. It is also fun to read.“
—Thomas A. Stoffregen, School of Kinesiology, University of Minnesota

„This is a timely and provocative presentation of what cognitive science without computation or inner representations might look like. Driven by real science rather than abstract thought-experiments, Chemero weds two underappreciated frameworks—dynamic systems theory and Gibsonian ecological psychology—to construct a compelling picture of embodied cognitive science. Anyone interested in situated or embedded cognition, or, for that matter, in intriguing new ways of thinking about thinking, ought to read this book.“
—William Ramsey, Department of Philosophy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas

„Behavior and cognition are grounded in the dynamical interaction of brains, bodies, and environments! In a refreshingly clear-headed model for how philosophical analysis can contribute to the science of cognition, Chemero articulates a vision for radical embodied cognitive science composed of equal parts dynamical systems theory and Gibsonian ecological psychology. A rich and fascinating book.“
—Randall D. Beer, Cognitive Science Program, Indiana University

„Chemero’s cognitive science is a science of the animate (not the artificial) and its philosophical trappings are those of pragmatism (not computational functionalism). It is advanced without hubris, emerging from select hypotheses, data, and models interwoven with critical examinations of the ideas of both friend and foe. Newcomers to the travails of cognitive science will find much to bother about, hardened old timers will find much to be bothered by. In short, Radical Embodied Cognitive Science is a book for the science’s generations.“
—Michael T. Turvey, Trustees‘ Distinguished Professor (Emeritus), University of Connecticut, and Senior Research Scientist, Haskins Laboratories

„Using an artful combination of dynamical systems theory and the overarching framework of ecological psychology along with clear-cut examples, Chemero offers a radical alternative to classic representationalist accounts of cognition. What makes this book an exceptional read is not just that it’s written with wit and style, but that Chemero does not beat about the bush. He actually wants to get rid of internal representations altogether and proposes a way to do it.“
—J. A. Scott Kelso, Center for Complex Systems and Brain Sciences, Florida Atlantic University, and co-author of The Complementary Nature

out of our heads: why you are not your brain

rom Publishers Weekly
Noë turns Descartes’s famous statement on its head: I am, therefore I think, says Noë. The author, a philosopher at UC-Berkeley, challenges the assumptions underlying neuroscientific studies of consciousness, rejecting popular mechanistic theories that our experience of the world stems from the firing of the neurons in our brains. Noë (Action in Perception) argues that we are not our brains, that consciousness arises from interactions with our surroundings: Consciousness is not something that happens inside us. It is something we do or make. Noë points out that many of our habits, like language, are foundational aspects of our mental experience, but at the same time many, if not most, habits are environmental in nature—we behave a particular way in a particular situation. He goes on to challenge popular theories of perception, in particular the claim that the world is just a grand illusion conjured up by the brain. Readers interested in how science can intersect with and profit from philosophy will find much food for thought in Noë’s groundbreaking study. (Feb. 24)
Copyright © Reed Business Information, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. –This text refers to the Hardcover edition.
From Booklist
The notion that consciousness is confined to the brain, like software in a computer, has dominated science and philosophy for close to two centuries. Yet, according to this incisive review of contemporary neuroscience from Berkeley philosopher Nöe, the analogy is deeply flawed. In eight illuminating, mercifully jargon-free chapters, he defines what scientists really know about consciousness and makes a strong case that mind and awareness are processes that arise during a dynamic dance with the observer’s surroundings. Nöe begins with a sharp critique of scientists, such as DNA co-discoverer Francis Crick, who insist that nothing but neurons determines our daily perceptions and sense of self. He then examines studies of human and animal behavior that demonstrate an inextricable link between identity and environment. Nöe regrettably limits his treatise by ignoring considerable research from transpersonal psychology suggesting that consciousness transcends physicality altogether. Still, the resulting book is an invaluable contribution to cognitive science and the branch of self-reflective philosophy extending back to Descartes’ famous maxim, “I think, therefore I am.” –Carl Hays –This text refers to the Hardcover edition.

How the Body Shapes the Mind is an interdisciplinary work that addresses philosophical questions by appealing to evidence found in experimental psychology, neuroscience, studies of pathologies, and developmental psychology. There is a growing consensus across these disciplines that the contribution of embodiment to cognition is inescapable. Because this insight has been developed across a variety of disciplines, however, there is still a need to develop a common vocabulary that is capable of integrating discussions of brain mechanisms in neuroscience, behavioral expressions in psychology, design concerns in artificial intelligence and robotics, and debates about embodied experience in the phenomenology and philosophy of mind. Shaun Gallagher’s book aims to contribute to the formulation of that common vocabulary and to develop a conceptual framework that will avoid both the overly reductionistic approaches that explain everything in terms of bottom-up neuronal mechanisms, and inflationistic approaches that explain everything in terms of Cartesian, top-down cognitive states.

Gallagher pursues two basic sets of questions. The first set consists of questions about the phenomenal aspects of the structure of experience, and specifically the relatively regular and constant features that we find in the content of our experience. If throughout conscious experience there is a constant reference to one’s own body, even if this is a recessive or marginal awareness, then that reference constitutes a structural feature of the phenomenal field of consciousness, part of a framework that is likely to determine or influence all other aspects of experience. The second set of questions concerns aspects of the structure of experience that are more hidden, those that may be more difficult to get at because they happen before we know it. They do not normally enter into the content of experience in an explicit way, and are often inaccessible to reflective consciousness. To what extent, and in what ways, are consciousness and cognitive processes, which include experiences related to perception, memory, imagination, belief, judgment, and so forth, shaped or structured by the fact that they are embodied in this way?

From Publishers Weekly
Cyborgs have long been a part of America’s cinematic imagination (think Arnold Schwarzenegger’s Terminator), but Clark says they’re very much a reality. Not only that; pretty much everyone is a cyborg already, according to the author, who heads up Indiana University’s cognitive science program. With our laptops, cell phones and PDAs, we’re all wired to the hilt and becoming more so every day. As Clark points out, „the mind is just less and less in the head“; when we need information, we usually fire up our PC and access it elsewhere. Clark is at his best when he’s writing for a wide audience, distilling arcane technological advances into their essential meaning. But sometimes his sheer enthusiasm for the subject takes over, and the book feels as if it’s intended only for tech wonks who can appreciate the minutiae of various mind-machine experiments. Clark gives a passing nod to the negative consequences of an increasingly cyborg world-social alienation, information overload-but retains his essentially positive take on the „biotechnological merger“ that is transforming so many people’s lives.
Copyright 2003 Reed Business Information, Inc. –This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.
From Booklist
Cognitive scientist Clark believes we are liberating our minds, thanks to our penchant for inventing tools that extend our abilities to think and communicate, starting with the basics of pen and paper and moving on to ever more sophisticated forms of computers. In this lively and provocative treatise, Clark declares that we are, in fact, „human-technology symbionts“ or „natural-born cyborgs,“ always seeking ways to enhance our biological mental capacities through technology, an intriguing claim he supports with a brisk history of „biotechnology mergers,“ which currently range from pacemakers to the way a pilot of a commercial airplane is but one component in an elaborate „biotechnological problem-solving matrix.“ Cell phones, Clark explains, are „a prime, if entry-level cyborg technology,“ as are Internet search engines. As Clark clearly and cheerfully discusses cognitive processes, how we build „better worlds to think in,“ opaque versus transparent technologies, and the fluidity of our sense of self and adaptation to environmental changes, he offers hope that our brainy species can use its ever-evolving powers in beneficial ways. Donna Seaman
Copyright © American Library Association. All rights reserved –This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.

ecological approach to visual perception
Product Description
This is a book about how we see: the environment around us (its surfaces, their layout, and their colors and textures); where we are in the environment; whether or not we are moving and, if we are, where we are going; what things are good for; how to do things (to thread a needle or drive an automobile); or why things look as they do.

The basic assumption is that vision depends on the eye which is connected to the brain. The author suggests that natural vision depends on the eyes in the head on a body supported by the ground, the brain being only the central organ of a complete visual system. When no constraints are put on the visual system, people look around, walk up to something interesting and move around it so as to see it from all sides, and go from one vista to another. That is natural vision — and what this book is about.

wikip embodied cognition
Cognitive science and linguistics

Lakoff and Johnson (1999) argue that the embodiment hypothesis entails that our conceptual structure and linguistic structures are shaped by the peculiarities of our perceptual structures. As evidence, they cite research on embodiment effects from mental rotation and mental imagery, image schemas, gesture, sign language, color terms, and conceptual metaphor among other examples.
According to Lakoff and Johnson, an embodied philosophy would show the laws of thought to be metaphorical, not logical; truth would be a metaphorical construction, not an attribute of objective reality. That is, it would not rely on any foundation ontology as might be sought in the physical sciences or religion, but would likely proceed from metaphors drawn from our experience of having a body.
Gilles Fauconnier and Mark Turner have advanced a theory of cognition known as conceptual blending which has much in common with the idea of embodied cognition.
Research by Tom M. Mitchell and others has shown that embodied features are an intrinsic aspect of semantics. These sensory-motor features include see, hear, listen, taste, smell, eat, touch, rub, lift, manipulate, run, push, fill, move, ride, say, fear, open, approach, near, enter, drive, wear, break, and clean. English nouns are found by computational linguistic analysis of over 1 trillion words of text exhibiting typical word use, to have exactly these 25 different semantic features. Each feature is associated with its own pattern of fMRI activity. The individual contribution of each parameter, when adjusted by the strength of its contribution to a particular noun, predicts the fMRI pattern when that noun is considered. Nouns therefore derive their meaning from prior experience linked probabilistically to a common symbol.[14]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conceptual_metaphor

http://www.jimdavies.org/summaries/lakoff1999.html

3 Comments

  1. bernd
    6. August 2010

    wat.

  2. jon
    7. August 2010

    tja bernd, hast wohl nich vastandn, wa?

    tss

  3. Jon
    7. August 2010

    öhm, ich meine natürlich: frag doch einfach!

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